It’s time to write up the results in APA format (step 4)!
APA Conventions for All Statistical Analyses:
The specific numbers and letters to report for each analysis are different. However, all letters, like t, M, SD should be in italics – that’s key for APA style!
Here are a few sites that I’ve found to be useful for figuring out how to report certain statistics in APA style.
(A number of my students are using MANOVA’s for their final projects so the number of MANOVA links reflect this. If these links are not helpful a Googlesearch of terms like “reporting a chi-square in APA format” should yield some useful references).
Another great resource is UCLA’s stats site – though the site can be difficult to navigate so at times I find it easier to Google “UCLA reporting a chi-square in APA format” as opposed to going directly to the UCLA page.
There are many programs that can be used to run statistics. This post will deal primarily with using SPSS.
This is perhaps the most straightforward step.
I suggest Googling the analysis, with phrasing along the lines of “How to run an ANOVA”. I’ve found that youtube videos can be extremely helpful for learning how to run new analyses – especially using SPSS.
One of the Youtube channels I reference is How2Stats, the author keeps the clips short and mainly focuses on the analysis at hand while covering some background material.
I suggest splitting the screen and literally going through the video step by step with your SPSS spreadsheet.
Disclaimer: I’m rushing a little as I need to share these posts with my psych 250 students ASAP (more to add in the future).
Most of these videos will also explain how to interpret the results. However, there are a number of other sites that detail exactly how to write up results in APA style. I’ll link to a few of my favorites in Step 4!
In much of my research I use mixed methods designs, meaning I combine qualitative and quantitative information. I’ve also been teaching a psych research methods course for the past couple of years in which students design and conduct their own final research projects and questions invariably arise about what stats to run. I encourage my students to follow a similar approach to the one I use when considering analyses for a particular project or to answer a particular question.
Scroll down the page and Marenco lays out some excellent tables that can help a researcher decide what statistical analyses to use when. At the bottom of the page Marenco writes out a few Q’s and A’s :
“When trying to decide what test to use, ask yourself the following…
I’ve also found reading through comment pages and blogs is a great way to learn from people who are wrestling with or have wrestled with similar questions.
The Analysis Factor is one blog I stumbled on the other day. Judging from a quick read it looked quite active – and the bloggers seemed really responsive to questions posted in the comments section.
Talk Stats is another active blog where a researcher can post and answer stats questions.
Hopefully these resources will be helpful for thinking through which statistical analysis to use. I also suggest talking to people about your thought process. If you have any friends who are familiar with statistics – share your ideas with them and see what they think – or email your professor and see what they think about your general direction and proposed analyses.